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On a new fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent on complete manifolds


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On a new fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent on complete manifolds

Ahmed Aberqi1, Omar Benslimane2, Abdesslam Ouaziz2and Du˘san D. Repov˘s3*



3Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article


We present the theory of a new fractional Sobolev space in complete manifolds with variable exponent. As a result, we investigate some of our new space’s qualitative properties, such as completeness, reflexivity, separability, and density. We also show that continuous and compact embedding results are valid. We apply the conclusions of this study to the variational analysis of a class of fractionalp(z,·)-Laplacian problems involving potentials with vanishing behavior at infinity as an application.

Keywords: Fractionalp(z,·)-Laplacian; Existence of solutions; Fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent on complete manifolds; Variational method

1 Introduction

Let (M, g) be a smooth complete compact Riemanniann-manifold. The present paper is devoted to proving some qualitative properties of a new fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent in complete manifolds, as well as to studying the existence of weak so- lutions to the following problem as an application:



(–g)sp(z,·)u(z) +V(z)|u(z)|q(z)–2u =h(z, u(z)) inQ, u|Q= 0,

whereQMis an open bounded set with a smooth boundary∂Q,s∈(0, 1),pC(M× M, (1;∞)) withsp(z,y) <n, we assume thatpis symmetric and satisfies the following con- ditions:

1 <p= min


p(z,y)p(z,y)p+= max


p(z,y), (1)


(z,y) – (x,x)

=p(z,y) ∀x,y,zM3, (2)

and we set ˆ

p(z) =p(z,z), ∀z∈M,

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alsoq:M→(1,∞) satisfies 1 <qq+<pp+< +∞, whereq+=supz∈Mq(z),q= infz∈Mq(z), and functionsh,Vsatisfy some suitable conditions (see Sect.4).

This type of operator has a significant role in many fields in mathematics, e.g., calculus of variations and partial differential equations, and it has also been used in a variety of phys- ical and engineering contexts, e.g., fluid filtration in porous media, constrained heating, elastoplasticity, image processing, optimal control, financial mathematics, and elsewhere, see [8,18,37] and the references therein.

In recent years, wide research has been done on fractional partial differential equations with variable growth. For example, Bahrouni and Rădulescu [7] developed some qualita- tive properties on the fractional Sobolev spaceWs,q(z),p(z,y)(Q) fors∈(0, 1) andQbeing a bounded domain inRnwith a Lipschitz boundary. Moreover, they studied the existence of solutions to the following problem:


Lu(z) +|u(z)|q(z)–1u(z) =λ|u(z)|r(z)–1u(z) inQ,

u = 0 in∂Q,


Lu(z) =p.v.


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)–2(u(z) – u(y))

|zy|n+sp(z,y) dy,

λ> 0, and 1 <r(z) <p=min(z,y)∈Q×Qp(z,y). Bahrouni [6] continued the study of this class of fractional Sobolev spaces with variable exponent and the related nonlocal operator.

More precisely, he proved a variant of the comparison principle for (–p(z))s. He gave a general principle of sub-supersolution method for the following problem:



(–p(z))su =f(z, u) inQ,

u = 0 inRn\Q,

whereQis a smooth open bounded domain,n≥3,s∈(0, 1),p,f are continuous functions, andf satisfies the following assumption:

f(z,t)c1+c2|t|r(z)–1, ∀z∈Rn,∀t∈R,

whererC(Rn,R) and 1 <r(z) <p(z) =n–sp(z,z)np(z,z) ,∀z∈Rn.

Kaufmann, Rossi, and Vidal [32] proved a compact embedding theorem for fractional Sobolev spaces with variable exponents into variable exponent Lebesgue space and, as an application, they showed the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the following fractionalp(z,y)-Laplacian equation:


Lu(z) +|u(z)|q(z)–2u(z) =f(z) inQ,

u = 0 in∂Q,

withfLa(z)(Q),a(z) > 1.

In [31] the authors refined the fractional Sobolev spaces with variable exponents given in [6,7,32] and established fundamental embeddings of this space. In addition, they gave


a sufficient condition for the exponentp(·,·) onRn×Rnfor the iteration argument of De Giorgi type and proved global boundedness of weak solutions to the problem (P1). Read- ers may refer to [1,4,5,12–14,19,21–23,27,33,34,36,38,42] and the references therein for more ideas and techniques developed to guarantee the existence of weak solutions for a class of nonlocal fractional problems with variable exponents. Whenp(·,·) =p= constant, we quote, for example, the relevant work of Vázquez [41], see also [2,9–11,15,17,20,35]

and the references therein. Various techniques have been proposed in the literature in or- der to recover the compactness in several circumstances. We refer to Tang and Cheng [40], who proposed a new approach to restore the compactness of Palais–Smale sequences, and to Tang and Chen [39], who introduced an original method to recover the compactness of minimizing sequences. A related approach has been developed by Chen and Tang [16] in the framework of Cerami sequences.

Before discussing our main results, we give a review of equations involving the fractional p-Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds. As far as we know, there is only the work of Guo, Zhang, and Zhang [29] who proved the existence of solutions to the following p-Laplacian equations with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions:


(–g)spu(z) =f(z, u(x)) inQ,

u = 0 inM\Q,

wheresp<nwiths∈(0, 1),p∈(1;∞), (–g)spis the fractionalp-Laplacian on Riemannian manifolds, (M,g) is a compact Riemanniann-manifold,Qis an open bounded subset ofM with a smooth boundary∂Q, andfis a Carathéodory function satisfying the Ambrosetti–

Rabinowitz-type condition.

The motivation of this paper was, on the one hand, the work of Fu and Guo [24] who introduced the variable exponent function spaces on Riemannian manifolds in 2012, fol- lowed by Gaczkowski and Górka [25] who in 2013 examined the above space in the case of compact manifolds, and Guo [28] who in 2015 discussed the properties of the Nemytsky operator and obtained the existence of weak solutions for Dirichlet problems of nonho- mogeneousp(m)-harmonic equations. Finally, in 2016 Gaczkowski, Górka, and Pons [26]

studied the variable exponent function spaces on complete noncompact Riemannian man- ifolds. Furthermore, they proved the continuous embeddings results between Sobolev and Hölder function spaces, using classic assumptions on the geometry. In addition, they es- tablished the compact embeddings ofH-invariant Sobolev spaces, whereHis a compact Lie subgroup of the manifold group of isometries, and, as an application, they showed the existence of weak solutions to nonhomogeneousq(z)-Laplace equations. For further background, we recommend that readers consult [1,12] and the references therein. On the other hand, we were also motivated by the work of Guo, Zhang, and Zhang [29] who established the theory of fractional Sobolev spaces on Riemannian manifolds.

The novelty of our work is in extending Sobolev spaces with variable exponents to cover the fractional case with complete manifolds. We prove some qualitative properties of this new space. Next, we study the existence of solutions to some nonlocal problems involv- ing potentials allowed for vanishing behavior at infinity. However, the main difficulty is presented by the fact that thep(z)-Laplacian operator has a more complicated nonlinear- ity than thep-Laplacian operator. For example, it is nonhomogeneous. To the best of our knowledge, there is no known result along this line.


The outline of the paper is as follows. In Sect.2, we collect the pertinent properties and notations of Lebesgue spaces with variable exponents and Sobolev–Orlicz spaces with variable exponents on a complete manifold. Moreover, we show the relation between the norm and the modular. In Sect.3, we study the completeness, reflexivity, separability, and density of our new space. Furthermore, we prove a continuous and compact embedding theorem of this space into variable exponent Lebesgue spaces. In Sect.4, we deal with a fractionalp(z)-Laplacian problem involving potentials allowed for vanishing behavior at infinity as an application.

2 Preliminaries

In this section, we review some definitions and properties of spacesW01,q(z)(Q), whereQ is an open subset ofRn, andW01,q(z)(M), which are known as the Sobolev spaces with vari- able exponents and the Sobolev spaces with variable exponents on a complete manifold, respectively. For more background, we refer to [1,3,12,21,26,28,30] and the references therein.

2.1 Sobolev spaces with variable exponents

Suppose thatQ⊂Rnis a bounded open domain, withn≥2. Letq(·) :Q→(1,∞) be a measurable function. We define real numbersq+andqas follows:

q+= esssup q(z) :zQ

and q= essinf q(z) :zQ .

Definition 2.1([21]) We define the Lebesgue space with variable exponentLq(·)(Q) as follows:

Lq(·)(Q) =

u :Q→R:q(·)(u) =


u(z)q(z)dz< +∞

, and endow it with the Luxemburg norm


μ> 0 :q(·) u




ifq+< +∞.

Proposition 2.1([21]) (Lq(·)(Q), · Lq(·)(Q))is a separable Banach space,and uniformly convex for1 <qq+< +∞,hence reflexive.

Proposition 2.2(Hölder inequality, [21])

Quv dx ≤

1 q + 1


uLq(·)(Q)vLq(·)(Q), ∀u,vLq(·)(Q)×Lq(·)(Q),

with q(z)1 +q1(z)= 1.

Definition 2.2([21]) We define the variable exponent Sobolev space by W1,q(z)(Q) = u : u∈Lq(z)(Q) and|Du| ∈Lq(z)(Q)



end endow it with the norm

uW1,q(z)(Q)=uLq(z)(Q)+DuLq(z)(Q), ∀u∈W1,q(z)(Q)

and setW01,q(z)(Q) :=C0(Q)W1,q(z)(Q).

2.2 Sobolev spaces with variable exponents on complete manifolds

Let (M, g) be a smooth complete compact Riemanniann-manifold. We begin by recalling some background, more can be found in [1,3,26,28,30]. A chart of manifoldMis a couple (Q,ϕ), whereϕis a homeomorphism of the open setQonto some open subset of Rn. Furthermore, a collection of charts (Qi,ϕi)i∈Isuch thatM=

i∈IQiis called an atlas onM.

Remark2.1 ([30, page 9]) For any atlas (Qi,ϕi)i∈IonM, there exists a partition of unity (Qj,ϕj,ηj)j∈J subordinate to the covering (Qi)i∈I.

Now, we define a natural positive Radon measure.

Definition 2.3([30, page 9)]) Let u :M→Rbe continuous with compact support, and let (Qi,ϕi)i∈Ibe an atlas onM, and set

Mu(z)dvg(z) =



det(gij)12 ηku

–1k (z)dz,

wheredvg= (det(gij))12dzis the Riemannian volume element on (M, g), gijare the com- ponents of the Riemannian metric g in the chart, anddzis the Lebesgue volume element ofRn.

Next, we define the Sobolev spacesLq(·)k (M) as the completion ofCq(·)k (M) with respect to the normuLq(·)

k , where

Ckq(·)(M) = u∈C(M) such that∀j, 0jk,Dku∈Lq(·)(M) and

uLq(·) k

= k




with|Dku|being the norm of thekth covariant derivative of u, defined in local coordinates by

Dku2= gi1j1· · ·gikjk Dku




Definition 2.4([3]) Letζ: [α,β]Mbe a curve of classC1. The length ofζ is

) = β







and, for a pair of pointsz,yM, we define the distancedg(z,y) betweenzandyby dg(z,y) =inf ) :ζ[α,β]Msuch asζ(α) =zandζ(β) =y


Definition 2.5([26]) A functiont:M→Ris log-Hölder continuous if there exists a constantCsuch that, for every pair of points{z,y}inM,

t(z) –t(y)C


e+ 1 dg(z,y)



LetPlog(M) be the set of log-Hölder continuous real functions onM, which is linked toPlog(Rn) by the following proposition:

Proposition 2.3([3,26]) Given qPlog(M),let(Q,φ)be a chart such that 1


as bilinear forms,whereδijis the Kronecker delta symbol.Then qφ–1Plog(φ(Q)).

Definition 2.6([3]) If the Ricci tensor of g, denoted byRc(g), satisfiesRc(g)λ(n– 1)g, for someλand for allzM,∃v> 0 such that|B1(z)|gv, whereB1(z) are balls of radius 1 centered at some pointzin terms of the volume of smaller concentric balls, then we say that then-manifold (M, g) has propertyBvol(λ,v).

Proposition 2.4([1, Proposition 2.17]) Letu∈Lq(z)(M),{uk}k≥0Lq(z)(M).Then (i) uLq(z)(M)< 1⇒ uqL+q(z)(M)q(z)(u)≤ uqLq(z)(M),

(ii) uLq(z)(M)> 1⇒ uqLq(z)(M)q(z)(u)≤ uqL+q(z)(M), where

q(z)(u) =



We now prove the following proposition.

Proposition 2.5 Ifu, ukLq(z)(M)and k∈N,then the following assertions are equiva- lent:

(1) limk→+∞uk– uLq(z)(M)= 0, (2) limk→+∞q(z)(uk– u) = 0,

(3) uk→ua.e.onMandlimk→+∞q(·)(uk) =q(·)(u).

Proof Ifuk– uLq(z)(M)→0, then


M|uk– u|q(z)dvg(z) = 0.

It is now easy to observe that uk→u a.e. onM. Thus|uk|q(z)→ |u|q(z)onMand the integrals of the functions|uk– u|q(z)are absolutely equicontinuous onM, and since


|uk– u|q(z)+|u|q(z) ,


the integrals of the|uk|q(z)are also absolutely equicontinuous onM, so, by the Vitali con- vergence theorem, we obtain that

k→+∞lim q(·)(uk) =q(·)(u).

Conversely, if uk→u onM, we can deduce that|uk– u|q(z)→0 onM, and using the same techniques as in the above proof, and due to the fact that

|uk– u|q(z)≤2q+–1

|uk|q(z)+|u|q(z) ,

andlimk→+∞q(·)(uk) =q(·)(u), we obtain thatlimk→+∞q(·)(uk– u) = 0.

Remark2.2 The following relation will be used to compare the functionals · Lq(·)(M)and q(·)(·):

min q(·)(u)q1,q(·)(u)q1+

≤ uLq(·)(M)≤max q(·)(u)q1,q(·)(u)q1+ .

Definition 2.7([28]) The Sobolev spaceW1,q(z)(M) consists of all functions u∈Lq(z)(M) for whichDku∈Lq(z)(M)k= 1, 2, . . . ,n. The norm is defined by

uW1,q(z)(M)=uLq(z)(M)+ n




The spaceW01,q(z)(M) is defined as the closure ofC(M) inW1,q(z)(M).

Theorem 2.1([1]) LetMbe a compact Riemannian manifold with a smooth boundary or without boundary and q(z),p(z)C(M)L(M).Assume that

q(z) <n, p(z) < nq(z)

nq(z) for zM.



is a continuous and compact embedding.

Proposition 2.6([3]) If(M, g)is complete,then W1,q(z)(M) =W01,q(z)(M).

3 Fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent on a complete manifold On a complete manifold, we introduce in this section a new fractional Sobolev space with variable exponent and state our mains results.

Definition 3.1 Letp:M×M→(1;∞) be a continuous variable exponent and lets∈ (0, 1). We define the modular

p(·,·)(u) =


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y).


Fors∈(0, 1), we introduce the variable exponent Sobolev fractional space on a complete manifold as follows:

Ws,p(z,y)(M) =

u :M→R: u∈Lp(z)ˆ (M) such as


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) <∞, for someλ> 0


Consequently, up(·,·)=inf

λ> 0 :p(·,·) u



= [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M). The modularp(·,·)has the following properties.

3.1 Lemmas

In this part, we will go through some of our new fractional space’s qualitative lemmas.

Lemma 3.1 Let pC(M×M, (1;∞))be a continuous variable exponent.Then for any u∈Ws,p(z,y)(M),we get

(1) [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M)≥1⇒[u]p


Ws,p(z,y)(M), (2) [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M)≤1⇒[u]p+


Ws,p(z,y)(M). Proof (1) For allθ∈(0, 1), we have


So, if [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M)> 1, then 0 <[u] 1

W s,p(z,y)(M)

< 1, thus we have p(·,·)(u)




u [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M)

p(·,·)(u) [u]p



and, since p(·,·)([u] u

W s,p(z,y)(M)) = 1, obtain our result. We proceed in the same way for


Remark3.1 It is important to note that the results of Proposition 2.5 apply top(·,·). Lemma 3.2 If (M, g) be a smooth complete compact Riemannian n-manifold, then Ws,p(z,y)(M)is a Banach space.

Proof Let{un}be a Cauchy sequence inWs,p(z,y)(M). Since


p(z) <pˆs(z) =



n–sˆp(z) ifsp(z) <ˆ n, +∞ otherwise,

for anyzM, it follows that for anyη> 0, there existsμηsuch that, if,mμη,

u– umLp(z)ˆ (M)≤ u– umWs,p(z,y)(M)η. (3)


SinceLp(z)ˆ (M) is complete (Lemma 2.5 in [28]), there exists u∈Lp(z)ˆ (M) such that u→u strongly inLp(z)ˆ (M) as→+∞. Consequently, we may find a subsequence{ut}of{u} inWs,p(z,y)(M) such that ut→u a.e. onM.

Then, by the Fatou’s lemma and (3) withη= 1, we obtain p(·,·)(u)



|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)

≤ lim



|ut(z) – ut(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)

≤2p+–1 lim



|(ut(z) – uμ1(z)) – (ut(y) – uμ1(z))|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +


|uμ1(z) – uμ1(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)


t→+∞lim infp(·,·)(ut– uμ1) +p(·,·)(uμ1)


t→+∞lim inf

ut– uμ1pW+s,p(z,y)(M)+ut– uμ1pWs,p(z,y)(M)




2 +uμ1pW+s,p(z,y)(M)+uμ1pWs,p(z,y)(M)

< +∞.

Hence, u∈Ws,p(z,y)(M). On the other hand, letμη. Then, according to (3) and from Fatou’s lemma, we get

p(·,·)(u– u)≤ lim

t→+∞infp(·,·)(u– ut)≤ηp++ηp 2 =η.

Thus lim→+∞p(·,·)(u– u) = 0. Thanks to Remark3.1,lim→+∞u– uWs,p(z,y)(M)= 0.

That is, u→u strongly onWs,p(z,y)(M) as→+∞.

Lemma 3.3 Let (M, g) be a smooth complete compact Riemannian n-manifold, and p(z,y)C(M×M, (1,∞))with sp(z,y) <n,for z,yM.Then Ws,p(z,y)(M)is a separable and reflexive space.

Proof Consider u,vW0s,p(z,y)(M) satisfyinguWs,p(z,y)

0 (M)=vWs,p(z,y)

0 (M)= 1 andu – vWs,p(z,y)

0 (M)ε, whereε∈(0, 2).

Case p(z,y)≥2.By inequality (28) in [2], we have that u +v

2 p(z,y)


+ u –v

2 p(z,y)


≤ 1

2 pp+


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +

1 2



|v(z) –v(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)


<1 2


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +1



|v(z) –v(y)|p(z,y)


=1 2up(z,y)

W0s,p(z,y)(M)+1 2vp(z,y)

W0s,p(z,y)(M)= 1.

So,u+v2 p(z,y)

W0s,p(z,y)(M)≤1 – (ε/2)p(z,y). Takingδ=δ(ε) such that 1 – (ε/2)p(z,y)= (1 –δ)p(z,y), we obtainu+v2 Ws,p(z,y)

0 (M)≤(1 –δ).

Case1 <p(z,y) < 2.Lettingp(z,y) = (p(z,y)–1)p(z,y) , we have




|u(z) – u(y)|

(dg(z,y))p(z,y)n +s


dvg(z)dvg(y) p(z,y)–11


As a result of the Minkowski inequality (see Theorem 2.13 in [15]) and inequality (27) in [2], we obtain that

u +v 2




+ u –v

2 p




(u(z) –u(y)) + (v(z) –v(y)) 2(dg(z,y))

n p(z,y)+s



(u(z) – u(y)) – (v(z) –v(y)) 2(dg(z,y))p(z,y)n +s


dvg(z)dvg(y) p(z,y)–11

≤ 1


W0s,p(z,y)(M)+1 2vp(z,y)



= 1.

Hence, u +v

2 p(z,y)


≤1 –εp(z,y) 2p(z,y).

Takingδ=δ(ε) such that 1 – (ε/2)p(z,y)= (1 –δ)p(z,y), from the Milman–Pettis theorem we obtain thatW0s,p(z,y)(M) is reflexive.

Now, we show thatW0s,p(z,y)(M) is a separable space. Define the operator T:Ws,p(z,y)(M)→Lp(z)ˆ (M)×Lp(z,y)(M×M),

u→T(u) =

u(z), u(z) – u(y) dg(z,y)p(z,y)n +s



Tis well defined.

Tis an isometry.


Indeed, for u∈W0s,p(z,y)(M), we obtain T(u)

Lp(z)ˆ (M)×Lp(z,y)(M×M)=uLp(z)ˆ (M)+

u(z) – u(y) dg(z,y)p(z,y)n +s



0 (M).

So,T(W0s,p(z,y)(M)) is a closed subspace ofLp(z)ˆ (M)×Lp(z,y)(M×M). Thanks to Propo- sition 3.17 in [15], we get thatT(W0s,p(z,y)(M)) is separable, thereforeW0s,p(z,y)(M) is also


Lemma 3.4 Suppose that(M, g)satisfies property Bvol(λ,v)with finite volume,and(2) holds.Then C0(M)is dense in Ws,p(z,y)(M).

Proof Consider the following real-valued function:

f(t) =




1 ift≤0, 1 –t if 0≤t≤1, 0 ift≥1.

Let ϕC(M)∩Ws,p(z,y)(M), and let y be a fixed point of M such that ϕν(α) = ϕ(α)f(dg(y,α))), wheredgis the Riemannian distance associated to g andν∈N. We can easily see thatϕν(α)∈Ws,p(z,y)(M) forν∈N. Then, sinceMis a compact Riemannian n-manifolds, it can be covered by a finite number of charts (Qk,φk)k=1,...,m. Letηk be a smooth partition of unity subordinate to the coveringQk. We can see thath=ηkϕνφ–1kWs,p(z,y)k(Qk)).

So, by Lemma 3.2 in [7], we can extract a subsequencehtC(R) such thaththstrongly in Ws,p(z,y)k(Qk)) ast→ ∞. Thus,htφkC(M) andhtφk converge

strongly toηkϕνinWs,p(z,y)(M) ast→ ∞.

Remark3.2 We can also prove the previous lemma, without assuming condition (2), by using the following method:

For u∈C0 (M), we need to prove that


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) <∞. Notice that∀(z,y)M×M, we have

u(z) – u(y)≤ DuL(M)dg(z,y), u(z) – u(y)≤2uL(M). Thus,

u(z) – u(y)p(z,y)≤ Dup(z,y)L(M)


, for all (z,y)M×M, and

u(z) – u(y)p(z,y)≤2p(z,y)up(z,y)L(M), for all (z,y)M×M.



u(z) – u(y)p(z,y)



, for all (z,y)M×M,


u(z) – u(y)p(z,y)≤2p+


, for all (z,y)M×M.


u(z) – u(y)p(z,y)≤2p+–1


min 1,

dg(z,y)p(z,y) . Therefore, according to [30], we obtain


|(ηsu)(z) – (ηsu)(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)





min{1, (dg(z,y))p(z,y)}

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) <∞,

where (ηs) is a smooth partition of unity subordinate of the coveringBzk(r) for anyk, and Bzk(r) denotes the Euclidean ball ofRnwith centerzkand radiusr. Then we deduce that, for u∈C0 (M),


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) <∞. Thus u∈Ws,p(z,y)(M).

Now, we will extend an embedding result betweenW1,p(z,y)(M) andWs,p(z,y)(M) to man- ifolds.

Lemma 3.5 Suppose that the smooth complete compact Riemannian n-manifold(M, g) has property Bvol(λ,v) for some (λ,v),pC(M × M, (1, +∞)), and s ∈ (0, 1). Then uWs,p(z,y)(M)CuW1,p(z,y)(M),where C=C(n,s,λ,v,p+,p).In particular,W1,p(z,y)(M) Ws,p(z,y)(M).

Proof For the sake of convenience, let [u]W1,p(z,y)(M)= 1 and set C= sup






|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)





|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y) (dg(z,y))n+p(z,y)


C dvg(z)dvg(y)


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+p(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y)


Thus, [u]Ws,p(z,y)(M)C[u]W1,p(z,y)(M). Hence,


Remark3.3 We can also prove the previous lemma using the same technique as that of [29, Lemma 2.6].

Theorem 3.1 LetMbe a compact Riemannian manifold,pC(M×M, (1;∞)),s∈(0, 1) with sp(z,y) <n and qC(M, (1;∞)).Assume that

1 <q=min

z∈Mq(z)q(z) < nˆp(z)

nsp(z)ˆ for all zM,

then Ws,p(z,y)(M)Lq(z)(M)is a continuous and compact embedding.

Proof The demonstration of this theorem is based on an idea introduced in [1,21,28,29].

Letϕ:VM→Rnbe an arbitrary local chart onM, andGMan open set with compact closure and contained inV. Take{Gl}l=1,...,kto be a finite subcovering ofMsuch thatGlis homeomorphic to the open unit ballB0(1) ofRnand, for anyl, the components glijof g in (gl,Vl) satisfy


αδij < glij<αδij

as bilinear forms, for some constantα> 1. Let{πl}l=1,...,k be a smooth partition of unity subordinate to the finite covering {Gl}l=1,...,k. It is clear that if u∈Ws,p(z,y)(M), then πlu∈Ws,p(z,y)(Gl) and (ϕl–1)∗(πlu)∈Ws,p(ϕ–1l (z,y))(B0(1)) with u =k

l=1πlu. According to Lemma3.5, the Sobolev embedding theorem [1,21,29], we get the continuous and com- pact embedding

Ws,p(z,z)(Gl)Lq(z)(Gl) for anyl= 1, . . . ,k.

Thus, we can conclude thatWs,p(z,y)(M)⊂Lq(z)(M), and the embedding is continuous and


4 Application

In this part, as an application, we give an existence result to the following problem:



(–g)sp(z,·)u(z) +V(z)|u(z)|q(z)–2u =h(z, u(z)) inQ, u|Q= 0,


wheres∈(0, 1),pC(M×M, (1;∞)) withsp(z,y) <n,q:Q→(1,∞) satisfy the follow- ing condition:

1 <qq+<pp+< nˆp(z)

nsp(z)ˆ , (4)

(M, g) is a smooth complete compact Riemannian n-manifold, QM is an open bounded set with smooth boundary∂Q,h:Q×R→Ris a Carathéodory function satis- fying the following assumptions:

(h1) (AR-condition) There existβ>p+and someI> 0such that, for each|α|>I, we have 0 <



βdvg(z) a.e.zM, whereH(z,α) =α

0 h(z,υ)dυis the primitive ofh(z,α), (h2) h(z, 0) = 0,

(h3) lim|α|→0 h(z,α)

|α|q(z)–1= 0uniformly a.e.zM,

and (–g)sp(z,·)u(z) is the fractionalp(z,·)-Laplace operator which (up to normalization fac- tors) may be defined as

(–g)sp(z,·)u(z) = 2lim



|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)–2(u(z) – u(y)) (dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(y),

forzM, whereB(z) denotes the geodesic ball ofMwith centerzand radius and dg(z,y) defines a distance onMwhose topology coincides with the original one. The van- ishing potential satisfies the following assumptions:

(i) V:M→Ris a continuous function, and there existθ> 0,γ > 0such that V(z) >θ> 0for allzM, and

MV(z)u(z)q(z)dvg(z)≤γuq(z)Ws,p(z,y)(M), for allu∈W0s,p(z,y)(M).

(ii) V(z)→+∞as|z| →+∞.

Definition 4.1 A measurable function u∈W0s,p(z,y)(M) is said to be a weak solution of (P) if


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)–2(u(z) – u(y))(ϕ(z) –ϕ(y))

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z) dvg(z)dvg(y) +





h z, u(z)

ϕ(z)dvg(z), for allϕW0s,p(z,y)(M).

Theorem 4.1 Under assumptions(h1)–(h3), (4)and(i)–(ii),if(M,g)satisfies the property Bvol(λ,v),then problem(P)possesses at least one weak solution.


Proof Consider the functionalE:W0s,p(z,y)(M)→Rdefined by E(u) =A(u) –B(u),

where A(u) =


1 p(z,y)

|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +



q(z)u(z)q(z)dvg(z) and

B(u) =

MH z, u(z)


Lemma 4.1 Assume that the assumptions(i)–(iii)hold.Then AC1(W0s,p(z,y)(M))and A(u),ϕ



|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)–2(u(z) – u(y))(ϕ(z) –ϕ(y))

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +

MV(z)u(z)q(z)–2u(z)ϕ(z)dvg(z), (5)

for allu,ϕW0s,p(z,y)(M).

Proof For u∈W0s,p(z,y)(M), we have A(u) =



p(z,y).|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) +




≤ 1 p


|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y) dvg(z)dvg(y) + 1 q


≤ 1 p




+ γ q+




using Lemma3.1and (i)

< +∞.

Hence,Ais well defined.

To prove thatAC1(W0s,p(z,y)(M)), we consider{ut} ⊂W0s,p(z,y)(M) such that ut→u strongly inW0s,p(z,y)(M) ast→+∞. Then, we have



|ut(z) – ut(y)|p(z,y)

(dg(z,y)n+sp(z,y) –|u(z) – u(y)|p(z,y) (dg(z,y)n+sp(z,y)

dvg(z)dvg(y) = 0. (6) Without losing generality, we further assume that ut−→u a.e. inMast→+∞. Using (6), we get that

|ut(z) – ut(y)|p(z,y)(ut(z) – ut(y)) (dg(z,y))n+sp(z,y)




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